PhD Studentship: Isotopic Fingerprints of Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) in Atmosphere and Biosphere (KAISER_UENV18EE)

University of East Anglia - School of Environmental Sciences

Start Date: October 2018

No. of positions available: 1

Supervisor: Professor Jan Kaiser

Project description: Background
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a sulfur-analogue of CO2. It is the most abundant atmospheric sulfur compound and has a lifetime of 2 to 4 years. COS has industrial and natural sources, mostly the oceans. Its main sinks are plant and soil uptake, but due to its long lifetime, some COS reaches the stratosphere where it undergoes photolysis and oxidation to sulfate and forms the stratospheric aerosol layer (Fig. 1). This layer is of key importance for ozone chemistry, the radiation balance and Earth’s climate. Like CO2, COS is taken up during photosynthesis, but not released during respiration, making it a tracer for gross primary productivity (Asaf et al. 2013). However, overlap of plant and soil uptake limit the use of COS concentration alone for this purpose. Isotope measurements have recently found applications in fingerprinting COS sources and sinks including atmospheric oxidation pathways, and can potentially distinguish between plant and soil uptake.

Methodology

  1. A novel online method for isotope analysis of COS will be used for 13C and 34S measurements (Hattori et al. 2015) and further extended to polyisotopologues (13C16O34S) on mass-spectrometers with worldwide unique analyser and detector configurations.
  2. The isotope fractionation during COS uptake by soils and vegetation will be determined using COS-enriched atmospheres, in order to provide constraints on the relative contributions of different COS sinks. Isotope fractionation during COS photolysis under realistic light conditions will be measured and used to verify the stratospheric sulfate aerosol budget.
  3. Finally, the new method will be deployed on archived tropospheric and stratospheric samples to improve the global budget of COS for the quantification of gross photosynthesis rates.

This project has been shortlisted for funding by the EnvEast NERC Doctoral Training Partnership, comprising the Universities of East Anglia, Essex and Kent, with over twenty other research partners. Undertaking a PhD with the EnvEast DTP will involve attendance at mandatory training events throughout the course of the PhD. Shortlisted applicants will be interviewed on 12/13 February 2018.

For further information, please visit www.enveast.ac.uk/apply

Person specification: 
Minimum entry requirement: 2:1 or equivalent.

This project requires good quantitative-analytical and experimental skills. A good Honours degree in science or engineering is required; an MSc is desirable. Training will be provided in isotope mass spectrometry, gas and vacuum systems, instrument control and numerical data analysis. Any scientific knowledge gaps can be filled by attending taught courses, e.g. in biogeochemical cycles and atmospheric chemistry. The project includes visits to international collaborators in the Netherlands.

EnvEast welcomes applicants from quantitative disciplines who may have limited background in environmental sciences. Excellent candidates will be considered for an award of an additional 3-month stipend to take appropriate advanced-level courses in the subject area.

Funding notes: Successful candidates who meet RCUK’s eligibility criteria will be awarded a NERC studentship - in 2017/18, the stipend is £14,553. In most cases, UK and EU nationals who have been resident in the UK for 3 years are eligible for a stipend. For non-UK EU-resident applicants NERC funding can be used to cover fees, RTSG and training costs, but not any part of the stipend. Individual institutes may, however, elect to provide a stipend from their own resources. 

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Type / Role:

PhD

Location(s):

South East England